This tutorial on Artificial Intelligence provides basic and intermediate information about concepts of Artificial Intelligence. This tutorial is intended to be helpful for both students and professionals who are just starting out in Artificial Intelligence. This tutorial will focus on AI for beginners.
For more information about machine learning, please visit this complete beginner tutorial of Machine Learning. This tutorial will cover artificial intelligence. We’ll be looking at different concepts like the meaning of artificial intelligence, its levels, various applications, and the future.
You will need to have extensive experience to be able to work in the field. We will discuss various job roles that are related to artificial intelligence, and help you get the relevant experience. It doesn’t matter if you have a particular background to join the field of AI. You can learn artificial intelligence the skills required and it is possible to do so.
Although the terms Data Science (AI), Artificial Intelligence(AI), and Machine learning are all part of the same domain, they each have their own meanings and applications. Artificial intelligence is simply a way for machines to perform reasoning in a manner that replicates human intelligence. AI processes are designed to learn from experience. It is important that AI processes provide the correct information and allow for self-correction.
Table of Artificial Intelligence Tutorials
- What is Artificial Intelligence?
- Why is Artificial Intelligence important?
- History of Artificial Intelligence
- Levels of Artificial Intelligence
- Applications of Artificial Intelligence
- Goals of Artificial Intelligence
- Jobs in Artificial Intelligence
- Advantages of Artificial Intelligence
- Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence
- Future of AI
What is Artificial Intelligence?
This question of how to make artificial intelligence will depend on the person you ask. An untrained layman with little knowledge of the technology would connect it to robots. An AI researcher would answer your question about artificial intelligence. He’d say it’s a collection of algorithms that can produce results, without being explicitly instructed. Both answers are correct. These answers are both correct.
- An intelligent entity created by humans.
- Capable of performing intelligent tasks without being instructed.
- Capable of thinking rationally and acting humanely.
Artificial Intelligence is a branch of computer science that seeks to replicate or create human intelligence in machines. What makes a machine smart? Machine learning and deep learning algorithms are used to power many AI systems. AI is always evolving.
What was once considered part of AI may be now only a function of a computer? A calculator, for example, may have been part of AI in the past. It is now considered a simple function. Similar to AI, there are many levels. Let’s understand the basics of AI.
Why is Artificial Intelligence Important?
Artificial Intelligence’s goal is to enhance human capabilities and allow us to make informed decisions that have far-reaching implications. This is AI’s main objective from a technical perspective. If we consider the significance of AI from a philosophical perspective, it can help people live meaningful lives without the need for hard work. AI can help manage the interconnected web of individuals, companies, and nations in a way that is beneficial for all.
Artificial Intelligence currently includes all of the tools and techniques that have been created by humans over the past thousand years. It is intended to make life easier and help people make better decisions. Artificial Intelligence, one of these inventions, will allow us to continue inventing groundbreaking tools and services that would exponentially improve our lives and hopefully eliminate strife, inequality, and human suffering.
These kinds of outcomes are not yet possible. It is possible that it will come about in the near future. Companies are currently using Artificial Intelligence to increase process efficiency, automate resource-heavy tasks, as well as to make business predictions based upon data. AI is important in many ways, as you can see. It opens up new possibilities in the world and helps us increase our productivity.
History of Artificial Intelligence
Intelligent beings have been around for a while and are now being used in many industries such as AI in healthcare, education, finance, and banking. Ancient Greeks believed that robots existed, just as Egyptian and Chinese engineers created automatons.
The origins of modern AI can be traced back to the period when classical philosophers attempted to describe human thinking in a symbolic system. A handful of scientists from different fields explored the possibility of creating an artificial brain between the 1940s to the 1950s.
This was the catalyst for the rise in AI research, which was established as an academic discipline at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire, in 1956. John McCarthy is considered the father of Artificial Intelligence.
Scientists found it difficult to develop intelligence in machines despite a large, global effort that spanned many decades. Scientists had to contend with a severe shortage of funding between the 1990s and mid-1970s for AI research. These years were known as “AI Winters”.
In the late 1990s, however, American corporations were again interested in AI. The Japanese government also had plans to create a fifth-generation computer to advance AI. In 1997, IBM’s Deep Blue beat Garry Kasparov, the first computer to defeat a world champion in chess.
AI technology and progress continued – thanks largely to advances in computer hardware – corporations and governments began to use its methods successfully in other niches. In the last 15 years, Amazon and Google have been able to use AI technology to their great commercial advantage. Today, AI is embedded in many online services. The technology is now embedded in many of our online services. It has also been able to drive large parts of the stock market.
Artificial Intelligence can be divided into three sub-domains today: Artificial General Intelligence (AGI), Artificial Narrow Intelligence (AIM), and Artificial Super Intelligence (AIM). We will go in-depth about each of these in this article. We will also talk about the differences between AI and AGI.
Levels of Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence can be divided into three main levels:
- Artificial Narrow Intelligence
- Artificial General Intelligence
- Artificial Super-intelligence
Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI)
Also called weak AI or narrow AI, artificial narrow intelligence is a goal-oriented system that is designed to accomplish a single task. These machines, although they are intelligent, function within very limited limitations and are therefore called weak AI. It doesn’t mimic human intelligence, but it does stimulate human behavior according to certain parameters.
NLP and natural language processing are used by narrow AI to accomplish tasks. This is evident in chatbots, speech recognition systems like Siri, and other technologies. Deep learning is a way to personalize the user experience. For example, virtual assistants that store your data can help you make your future experience more enjoyable.
Examples of weak or narrow AI:
- Siri, Alexa, Cortana
- IBMs Watson
- Self-driving cars
- Facial recognition software
- Email spam filters
- Prediction tools
Artificial General Intelligence (AGI)
Artificial general intelligence, also known as deep AI or strong AI, refers to the idea that machines can imitate human intelligence and have the ability to use their intelligence to solve problems. This level of intelligence has not yet been achieved by scientists. This level of intelligence will require significant research. Scientists will need to discover a way for machines to become conscious by programming a series of cognitive abilities. Some properties of deep AI include-
- Hypothesis testing
Although it is hard to predict whether AI will continue to improve in the future, speech and facial recognition are showing steady advances, so there is a possibility of AI growing in the near future.
Artificial Super-intelligence (ASI)
Super-intelligence is a concept that is still hypothetical. Although it is possible to create an artificial intelligence similar to super-intelligence in the future, it is not currently possible. The level at which a machine is capable of surpassing human abilities and becoming self-aware can be called super-intelligence. This idea has inspired many films and science fiction novels. Robots capable of feeling and expressing emotions can surpass humanity.
It could create emotions and be more intelligent than humans in art, math, science, and other areas. A superintelligence’s decision-making abilities would be superior to that of a human being. We are still not able to understand the concept of artificial superintelligence. Its consequences cannot be predicted and its impact can’t yet be measured.
Let us now understand the difference between weak AI and strong AI.
Applications of Artificial Intelligence
Artificial intelligence is now a common feature in many industries. The use of AI technology has expanded to many areas, including healthcare and gaming. Did you know that Google Maps and facial recognition apps such as the iPhone use AI technology? AI technology is everywhere and part of everyday life. Great Learning offers the PGP AI and Machine Learning Course. These are just a few examples of Artificial Intelligence.
Best Applications of Artificial Intelligence in 2020
- Google’s AI-powered predictions (Google Maps)
- Ride-sharing applications (Uber, Lyft)
- AI Autopilot in Commercial Flights
- Spam filters on Emails
- Plagiarism checkers and tools
- Facial Recognition
- Search recommendations
- Voice-to-text features
- Smart personal assistants (Siri, Alexa)
- Fraud protection and prevention
These are the areas in which AI can be applied. These are the areas where AI is applied. Let’s look at them in more detail. DeepMind has been partnered with Google to improve accuracy in traffic prediction. They can use historical traffic data and live data to make precise predictions using AI technology and machine-learning algorithms. A personal assistant that is intelligent can execute tasks based on our commands. It can send messages, perform a Google search, record a voice message, chatbots, and many other tasks.
Goals of Artificial Intelligence
You’ve already seen the definitions of AI and its various levels, as well as their applications. What are the AI goals? What are the goals of AI? AI would allow computers and machines to learn and act intelligently. These are some of the other goals for AI:
1. Problem-solving: Researchers created algorithms that could imitate the steps that human beings use to solve a puzzle. Research had advanced to the point where methods could be used to handle incomplete or unreliable information in the 1990s and 2000s. For difficult problems, however, it is necessary to have enormous computational resources and high memory power. Artificial intelligence is a search for efficient algorithms to solve problems.
2. Knowledge representation: Machines will be expected to solve complex problems that require extensive knowledge. Knowledge representation is a key component of AI. Artificial intelligence can represent objects, properties, events and cause, and effect.
3. Planning: AI should have the goal of helping people set and achieve intelligent goals. Ability to predict how actions will affect change and the options available. An AI agent must be able to evaluate its environment and make predictions accordingly. Planning is an important aspect of AI and can be considered a goal.
4. Learning: Machine learning is one of the most fundamental concepts in AI. It’s the study of computer algorithms that improve with experience. There are many types of machine learning. There are two types of ML that are most commonly used: Unsupervised Machine Learning (or Supervised Machine Learning). You can learn more about these concepts by visiting our blog What ML is and how it works.
5. Social Intelligence: Affective computing refers to the study of systems capable of processing human emotions. It is a combination of cognitive science, psychology, computer science, and cognitive science. AI’s other goal is social intelligence. It is crucial to understand these fields before creating algorithms.
AI’s ultimate goal is to develop technologies that combine the above goals to create intelligent machines that can work efficiently, make faster decisions, and increase security.
Jobs in Artificial Intelligence
According to Indeed, the demand for AI skills has more than doubled in the past three years. The number of job postings in the field has increased by 119%. Today, it takes just minutes to train an image-processing algorithm. This is a vast improvement on the time taken a few years back. We can see that there is a shortage in skilled professionals working in artificial intelligence when we compare the job opportunities available to them today and the number of professionals on the market.
Before you dive into an AI career, it is important to have a basic understanding of Bayesian Networking and Neural Nets. You should know the different job roles that are available to you if you’re looking for a career in AI. Let’s take a closer look into the various job roles available in the AI world and the skills required for each one.
1. Machine Learning Engineer
The role of a machine learning engineer is for someone with a background in Data Science and applied research. It is necessary to be proficient in multiple programming languages, such as Java and Python. Understanding predictive models will be a benefit as well as being able to use Natural Language Processing to work with large datasets.
You can further your career as a machine-learning engineer by becoming familiar with Eclipse and IntelliJ software development IDE tools. You will be responsible for managing multiple machine learning projects, among other responsibilities.
The average annual salary for an ML engineer is $114,856. Companies are looking for highly skilled professionals with master’s degrees in the relevant field. They also need to have an in-depth understanding of machine learning concepts, Java and Scala. While the requirements may vary depending on the company hiring, analytical skills and knowledge of cloud applications are considered a plus.
2. Data Scientist
Data Scientists are responsible for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting large and complex data sets using machine learning and predictive analytics tools. Data Scientists also have to develop algorithms that allow data collection and cleaning for further analysis and interpretation. A Data Scientist earns an average salary of $120,931, with the following skills:
The skills needed may differ from one company to the next depending on your level of experience. Many companies require a master’s or doctoral degree in data science or computer science to hire. An advanced computer science degree is beneficial for Data Scientists who want to develop AI. It is essential that you can understand unstructured data and possess strong communication and analytical skills. These skills are crucial as you will be communicating your findings with business leaders.
3. Business Intelligence Developer
If you look at the various roles in AI, the Business Intelligence Developer is also included. This role’s objective is to analyze complex data sets that can help us identify market and business trends. An annual median salary for a BI developer is $92,278. A BI developer is responsible to design, model, and maintain complex data in cloud-based data systems. You must be able to use both technical and analytical skills to become a BI developer.
Communication skills are important as you will need to communicate solutions with colleagues who lack technical knowledge. Problem-solving skills are also required. A bachelor’s degree is required for a BI developer. Work experience and additional education are also helpful. The certifications are considered an added quality and highly sought-after. Data mining, SQL queries, and SQL server reporting services are some of the skills needed for a BI developer.
4. Research Scientist
A research scientist is one of the most prominent careers in Artificial Intelligence. Expertise in multiple fields is required, including mathematics, deep learning, and machine learning. Candidates should have a good understanding of computer perception, graphical models, and reinforcement learning. Research scientists, like Data Scientists, have to hold a master’s degree or doctoral in computer science. According to the median annual salary, $99,809 is earned. Companies are looking for people who have a deep understanding of parallel computing, distributed computation, benchmarking, and machine learning.
5. Big Data Engineer/Architect
The highest-paying job in Artificial Intelligence is that of Big Data Engineer/Architect. A Big Data Engineer/Architect earns an average salary of $151,307. They are vital in creating an environment that allows business systems to communicate and share data. Big data Architects are different from Data Scientists in that they have to plan, design, and develop a big data environment using platforms like Spark and Hadoop. Employers are looking for people who have experience in C++ and Java, Python, and Scala.
Additional benefits include data mining, data visualization, and data migration skills. A PhD in mathematics, or any other related field of computer science, would be an added benefit.
Advantages of Artificial Intelligence
As with all things, AI also has its cons. Let’s first understand the benefits of artificial intelligence. It has made our lives so much easier than in the past.
- Reduction in human error
- Available 24×7
- Helps in repetitive work
- Digital assistance
- Faster decisions
- Rational Decision Maker
- Medical applications
- Improves Security
- Efficient Communication
Let’s take a closer look at each of the aforementioned points.
1. Reduction in human error
After applying a set algorithm, all decisions made in an AI model are based on the previously collected information. This allows for errors to be minimized and accuracy to increase with greater precision. There is always the possibility of human error in any task that humans perform. Because we can make mistakes, it is better than programs and algorithms via AI are used as they reduce the risk of error.
2. Available 24×7
Artificial intelligence models can work 24 hours a day without any rest or boredom. This is significantly faster than an average person who can only work six to eight hours per day. The human body is not able to work for extended periods of time. We need rest and to recharge. AI can be used 24/7 to improve efficiency.
3. Helps in repetitive work
Artificial Intelligence is able to automate routine human tasks. Artificial Intelligence can assist us in being more creative, from sending thank you emails to clearing out clutter or answering questions. It can help us verify documents. People can become bored or disinterested in repetitive tasks, such as food preparation in a restaurant or factory. These repetitive tasks can be automated with AI to save time and avoid errors.
4. Digital assistance
Many highly technical organizations make use of digital assistants for interaction with users. This allows the organization to reduce costs and save on human resources. Chatbots, digital assistants that can answer users’ questions, are often used on a website. It provides a user-friendly interface and smooth operation. Chatbots are an excellent example of this. Learn more about how you can build an AI Chatbot.
5. Faster decisions
Together with other technologies, AI can make machines more efficient than human beings when it comes to making decisions. This allows for faster actions. This is because humans are more inclined to make decisions through emotion than AI-powered machines which deliver quick results.
6. Rational Decision Maker
Although we as humans have advanced to a great degree technologically, our emotions still control our decision-making. It is important that you make quick, efficient, and logical decisions in certain situations. AI-powered decision-making is controlled by AI algorithms. There is no room for emotional discordance. AI-powered rational decisions ensure efficiency and increase productivity.
7. Medical applications
AI’s greatest application is in the medical sector, which is among many other benefits. With the aid of AI-powered medical apps, doctors can evaluate their patients’ health risk. Radiosurgery can be used to treat tumors without causing any damage to surrounding tissues or other complications. AI can be used for surgery by medical professionals. They are able to detect and monitor various neurological disorders efficiently and stimulate the brain’s functions.
8. Improves Security
Technology is constantly improving, which means that there are more people who will use it for illegal purposes such as identity theft or fraud. AI can be a powerful tool in improving security in our organization if used correctly and for the right reasons. AI can help us protect our finances and data. Cybersecurity is a major area where AI is being used. It has revolutionized our ability to protect our personal data from any cyber threats and attacks. Continue reading to learn more about AI in Cybersecurity, and how it can help.
9. Efficient Communication
People from different parts of the world speak different languages, making it difficult to communicate with one another. If the other person does not speak the same language, human translators could help them communicate. This is evident when we look back at history. AI eliminates these problems. Natural Language Processing is a way for systems to convert words from one language to another.
This eliminates the need to have a translator. Google Translate is one of the most impressive examples. It has evolved over time. It now provides audio examples of the pronunciation of words and sentences. This improves our communication skills and accuracy.
Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence
Now that we have understood the advantages of AI, let us take a look at a few disadvantages.
- Cost overruns
- Dearth of talent
- Lack of practical products
- Lack of standards in software development
- Potential for misuse
- Highly dependent on machines
- Requires Supervision
Let’s take a closer look at the disadvantages of AI.
1. Cost overruns
An AI-powered model is far more efficient than software development in terms of its operations. This means that the amount of resources needed to run an AI-powered model is much greater than software development. This increases the cost of operations.
2. Dearth of talent
AI is still in its infancy. It is difficult to find professionals with the necessary skills. There is a wide gap between the available jobs in AI and the skilled workforce. An organization will incur additional costs by hiring someone with all the required skills.
3. Lack of standards in software development
Collaboration between different AI systems is what makes Artificial Intelligence truly valuable. It’s not possible for different AI systems to talk to one another because there aren’t enough standards in AI software development. Artificial Intelligence software development is expensive and slow, which also hinders AI development.
4. Potential for Misuse
AI has enormous potential and is a powerful tool in today’s market. However, great power can also lead to misuse. There is a greater chance that AI will be misused if it falls into the hands of someone with unethical motives.
5. Highly dependent on machines
Siri and Alexa are now part of our daily lives. These applications are a part of our daily lives and provide us with assistance, which reduces our creativity. We have become increasingly dependent on machines, losing the ability to learn simple skills and becoming lazy.
6. Requires Supervision
AI algorithms offer many benefits and are highly efficient. It does require constant supervision and assistance. These algorithms can’t work without our programming them and checking that they are working in the correct way. Microsoft’s AI chatbot named “Tay” is an example. Tay, which was created through online conversations, was modeled to mimic a teenage girl’s voice.
It was programmed to learn basic conversational skills but didn’t know how to tell the difference between right or wrong. So it continued tweeting highly incorrect and political information thanks to internet trolls.
Future of Artificial Intelligence
Technological advances have fascinated us all our lives. We live in the midst of some of the most significant AI advances in human history. Artificial Intelligence is the most significant technological advancement. This has had a profound impact on every industry’s future and has been a driver for emerging technologies like big data, robotics, IoT, and IoT. AI will only continue to grow at the rate it is. As such, AI is an exciting field that we can expect to see a lot of growth in 2020. This area will require more skilled professionals as a result of AI advancements.
A certification in AI will give you an advantage over others in the industry. Facial Recognition, AI In Healthcare, and Chat-bots are all growing rapidly, so now is the best time to start building an AI career. Virtual assistants are part of everyday life, without us even realizing it. Tech giants such as Tesla have given us a glimpse into the future with self-driving cars. There are many more advances to come. This is just the beginning. The World Economic Forum estimates that Artificial Intelligence will create 133 million new jobs by 2022. Artificial Intelligence is a bright future.